Fucoidan is present in brown seaweeds
As more than 70% of the world’s surface is covered by oceans, the wide diversity of marine organisms offer a rich source of natural products. Marine environment contains a source of functional materials, including polysaccharides, essential minerals and vitamins, antioxidants, enzymes, etc. 25-26 Among marine organisms; marine algae are rich sources of structurally diverse bio-active compounds with various biological activities. Edible marine algae, sometimes referred as seaweeds, have attracted special interest as good sources of nutrients and one particular interesting feature is their richness in Fucoidan.
What is Fucoidan?
Approximately 4% of the total dry weight of brown seaweed consists of Fucoidan. The brown seaweeds Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus), Fucus (Fucus vesiculosus) and others have shown to have a cancer-inhibiting activity along with an immune-modulating effect because of their high content of Fucoidan. Fucoidan is the sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds and some other marine invertebrates (such as urchin and sea cucumbers). 26 The polysaccharide was named as “fucoidin” when it 6 Month Cash Loans- Hassle Free Cash Loans. was first isolated from marine brown algae by professor Johann Harald Kylin of Uppsala University in Sweden in 1913. 26 Now it is named as “Fucoidan” according to IUPAC rules (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), but some also called it fucan, fucosan or sulfated fucan. Fucoidan is mainly composed Ominous Objects: Trail Of Time Collector's Edition of fucose and sulfate groups along with mannose, galactose, xylose, and uronic acids, etc. Furthermore, the structure of Fucoidan varies from species to species. 26
In recent Save the Marriage - Can You Really Stop a Divorce? years Fucoidan has been extensively studied due to its numerous biological activities including anticoagulant and anti-thrombotic, antivirus, anti-tumor and immune-modulatory, anti-inflammatory, blood lipids reducing, antioxidant and anti-complementary properties, activity against hepatopathy, uropathy and renalpathy, gastrointestinal protective effects and therapeutic potential in surgery. 26
Health Benefits of Fucoidan
The health benefits of Fucoidan have been published in more than 1,000 scientific articles in The Ominous Objects: Trail Of Time Collector's Edition US National Library of Medicine. The research shows that Fucoidan’s therapeutic properties include immune system enhancement, anticoagulant, antivirus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, blood lipids reducing, antioxidant and anti-complementary, gastric protective and antioxidant. 26
Fucoidan’s Anti-tumor Activity(How is the anti-tumor activity of Fucoidan proven?)
It is the Fucoidan content in brown seaweeds that has been proven to cause certain types of rapidly growing cancer cells to self-destruct, according to the Biomedical Research Laboratories of Takara Shuzo and the Research Institute for Glycotechnology Advancement. This phenomenon of cancer cell “self-destruction” is known as apoptosis, which is caused by a mechanism that is programmed into the nature of the cells IT support London can save your business themselves. When the apoptosis mechanism is The Fundamental Outlook and Forex Fundamental Analysis Of A Currency triggered within a cell, the cell’s DNA or genetic blueprint is rendered useless, and therefore destroyed.
Apoptosis has been referred as the natural process through which living organisms expel harmful cells.
One thing for certain is that many studies have confirmed that Fucoidan does cause certain types of growing cancer cells to self-destruct. This is different from necrosis, where cells are destroyed because of external stimuli such as physical damage or toxic substances. Fucoidan is effective against sarcoma 180 21-22 and it has been found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human lymphoma HS-Sultan cell lines. 23 Interestingly, these cancer cells were destroyed without affecting normal cells. More research is still underway on this unique phenomenon.
Fucoidan: The Ocean’s Ultimate Immune Enhancer
In addition, Fucoidan has shown to exhibit excellent immune-modulating activity, both down-regulating allergic responses and enhancing anti-pathogenic responses. The active components contained in algal polysaccharides are mainly sulfated ones. 3-7, 8-9 Most studies support that sulfated polysaccharides can enhance the innate immune response by promoting the macrophages and natural killer cells.10-13 Antigen-presenting cells migrate into and out of tumor tissue to present tumor antigen to T-helper cells, as well as to produce cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta and TNF-alpha that stimulate T-helper cells. As a result, T-helper cells promote the activity of cytotoxic T-cell, which has the strong cytotoxic effect on tumor cells. 12, 14-16
Sulfated polysaccharides, like Fucoidan, can enhance the adaptive immune response by promoting such process. Recent studies have implicated that sulfated polysaccharides recognize a range of cell adhesion systems. Sulfated polysaccharide can bind to CD2, CD3, and CD4 in T lymphocytes and enhance the proliferative response of T lymphocytes. 17-19 In addition, Fucoidan-induced apoptosis in human lymphoma HS-Sultan cell lines is accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. 23 Fucoidan has also shown to block MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell adhesion to platelets, an effect which might have critical implications on tumor metastasis. 24
Anti-metastatic function of Fucoidan
Metastasis is a major problem in cancer treatment/therapy; there being several sequential steps in cancer cell metastasis. Cancer cells migrate from the primary cancerous site to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or lymph system.2 Tumor angiogenesis, the formation of new blood capillaries by vascular endothelial cells from existing vessels, is an important mechanism for supplying nutrients to tumor cells that are distant from existing blood vessels. 1 It is essential for a diverse range of physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue organ regeneration, menstrual cycle, and wound healing. Under these conditions, angiogenesis is highly regulated and transient. However, several conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer growth, tumor metastases, and transplantation are driven by persistent unregulated angiogenesis. 17 Angiogenesis is not only necessary for the growth of cancer but also for tumor transplantation and metastasis. These are two stages in tumor growth; the first stage involves the absence of blood vessel formation, whereas the second stage requires the formation of new capillaries. Under the second stage, tumor growth requires angiogenesis to supply nutrients and oxygen, and to remove waste products when the solid tumors grow 1-2 mm. 18 A number of in vivo studies have shown that Fucoidan and other seaweed extracts exhibit profound tumor inhibition qualities. The results have shown that the cells treated with Fucoidan extract significantly suppressed all parameters of tubules formation assay. The results indicate that the Fucoidan extract inhibits angiogenesis of tumor cells. 19 When combined with other relevant bioactivities, these tumor-inhibiting qualities suggest a potential for Fucoidan compounds to possess anti-cancer properties. Fucoidan has a wide variety of biological activities; the most researched properties are the Want to Lose Weight? Stop Eating Sugar! following:
1. Anti-coagulant and anti-thrombotic activity 26 2. Anti-virus activity 26 3. Anti-tumor activity 26 4. Angiogenesis Inhibition 26 5. Immunomodulatory activity 26 6. Antioxidant activity 26 7. Reducing blood lipids 26 8. Anti-complementary activity 26 9. Anti-inflammatory activity 26 10. Gastric protection 26 11. Against hepatopathy 26 12. Against uropathy and renalpathy 26 13. Regulation of cholesterol levels 26 14. Suppression of blood-pressure elevation 26 15. Suppression of blood-sugar levels 26 16. Anti H. pylori bacteria infection 26 17. Improvement of liver function 26 18. Promotion of hair growth 26 19. Skin moisturizing26 20. Anti-HIV action 26 21. Antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus 26 22. Associated with rise in interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, and stimulation of innate immunity 26 23. Macrophage activation 26
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